A Pandeiro is a single headed drum fitted with jingles (similar to a Tambourine).
It's the national instrument of Brazil and is used for rhythmic backing or as a solo instrument. Held in one hand the other plays the drum head. The playing of this instrument uses thumb strokes for open and muffled tones and backward and forward movements with the fingers and heel of the hand to provide a constant drive from the jingles. Adding slaps and finger or thumb rolls makes the Pandeiro a versatile instrument containing the sounds of several instruments in one.